Earlier this week, I observed two classes, both taught by the same teacher, both sophomore English, both academic track. The teacher was a recent attendee at a seminar where I had introduced a variation on the Socratic seminar called Socratic Smackdown (MONDAY! MONDAY! MONDAY!)
The first block, which ran from 7:15. until almost 9:00 a.m., was highly engaged, the second block not so much. Given everything we’ve seen lately about how teenagers need more sleep, these results seem counterintuitive. If any class should be disengaged, it’s the one that is still asleep.
As a closure activity, their teacher asked for feedback on their discussion, and several students mentioned how awkward the whole ritual felt. When the teacher asked them to dig deeper into the cause of this awkwardness, one young lady claimed, “We don’t know each other!”
The teacher countered that they had been together for eight weeks, the implication being that they should know each other by now, and the student responded, “Just because we’re in class together doesn’t mean we talk to each other!”
I was immediately transported back to May 1996, the spring of my first year of teaching. We were discussing Of Mice & Men, and one student made an excellent point to which another student said, “I agree with the boy by the window…”
I was horrified.
“The boy by the window?! That’s Justin! You’ve been in class together for eight months! How do you not know his name?”
The problem is real and, while we didn't create it, it is in our best interests to solve it.
The Difference Between Regular and Honors
I’ve heard more than a few teachers claim, “I could probably do that with my honors kids, but my regular kids just can’t handle it.” The implicit assumption here is that honors students, by virtue of their superior intellects or work ethics, are more fitted to academic discourse than their less academically gifted peers.
I’d like to propose an alternative explanation. Honors students take honors classes, which are fewer in number than the—call it academic, call it regular, call it what you will—middle track. As a result, honors students tend to be in many more classes with the same people over the course of several years. They may not like all of their peers, but they know what to expect from them.
By contrast, average students may have a completely new set of peers every period of every day every year, giving them limited opportunity to build relationships. Consequently, they lack the trust in each other that allows them to share ideas.
In addition, there are very real social barriers that teachers ignore at their own peril. As they get older, student bodies separate according to a series of unwritten and unforgiving laws that dictate where they can and cannot eat lunch, who they can date, whose parties they can be invited to, what extracurricular groups they can join, and how enthusiastically they are allowed to contribute in class.
Unless a teacher has only students from a single social caste in his classroom, he will have to spend some time breaking down the barriers between students before they will collaborate successfully.
Building Classroom Relationships
For several years, I taught a class for at-risk seniors. One year, two young men--one was a very Caucasian athlete, the other a very Latino gang member—nearly came to blows a few times during class, convinced that they were mortal enemies. I initiated a regimen of team building and class building exercises that would enable them to learn a little low-risk information about each other and discover some common ground. Eventually, they stumbled upon the fact that they both liked girls and getting high. I’ll grant you, I may have created problems for authority figures elsewhere in the community, but, as far as my class concerned, those two were no longer the source of any behavioral issues (and promised not to get high before or during my class).
If you want students who don’t know each other to work collaboratively, you must first help them break down those social barricades. Assign them an activity that requires them to find out something about each other. For example, while you take attendance, ask each student in a small group to speak for 30 seconds on any of the following topics:
- What did you do last weekend/what are your plans for this weekend?
- What’s the coolest thing you’ve ever done?
- If you had $1,000,000 but only one day to spend it, what would you do?
- If you could talk to one of your relatives who is no longer here, who would it be and what would you talk about?
There are a number of books with discussion prompts like this. Ones that leap immediately to mind are The Complete Book of Questions and If . . . (Questions for the Game of Life),Volumes 1-3 . There are also quite a few websites that ask people to choose between two unpleasant options, e.g. “Would you rather change your last name to Hitler or give up chocolate for the rest of your life?”
Realize that not all the material in these resources is necessarily safe for school, so use some judgment.
A Google search using the generic term “class building activities” yielded half a billion hits; there is no shortage of material out there. I prefer tasks that enable the sharing of personal information over those that merely ask students to complete a physical challenge. Any activity that requires a significant amount of physical contact or closeness should be viewed with extreme skepticism, but use your own comfort level as a guide. If you wouldn’t want to participate in the activity, don’t foist it onto your students.
Do some type of team building or class building activity three times a week—more if your students need it—and you will be amazed at the change that occurs in their willingness to participate and to support each other. Students may resist initially, so I recommend that you participate in these activities and share information about yourself. You are part of the team, and they need to know they can trust you as much as they trust each other.